The state of California and several of its cities have been on the forefront of raising the minimum wage. The arguments for (people cannot live on the current minimum wage) and against (it will cost jobs because business will need to lay people off) it are familiar. But now there is some data that makes a very interesting link between quality and the impact of raising wages.
This study looks at the impact of raises in the minimum wage and restaurant employment in the San Francisco Bay Area. Don’t be fooled by the academic nature of the paper—the authors do a good job of explaining things in English before digging into the math (though you can get another explanation here with an eye towards the political). The main takeaway from the article is that well run restaurants (in this case, defined by high Yelp ratings) are not impacted by minimum wage hikes. Crappy restaurants (based on quality, not menu price) saw their already higher closure rate go up with the increases. So, what does this mean for HR?
- Well run businesses can absorb higher wages when their competitors cannot. This may mean higher prices (in some instances people will pay for quality) or that these businesses can survive on lower profit margins. HR can contribute to this through good hiring (brining in people who can deliver high levels of customer service) and training (developing a learning culture) practices.
- Use data to improve quality. The study shows that online feedback (in this case, Yelp reviews) is strongly correlated with business success. This customer input should be used to improve service and quality.
- If we presume that the vast majority of the workers at the restaurants are at minimum wage (as the paper does), this research tells us that paying more is not an indicator of quality or success. If restaurant A is getting a rating of 5 and restaurant B is getting a rating of 3, it is not due to wage differentials. Rather, it is likely based on the quality of the product and the level of service. HR may not have much impact on the former, but it certainly does on the latter.
What the paper really tells is that that business can succeed without necessarily being the one that pays the highest wages. When wages are held constant, hiring the best people from the available labor pool may lead to higher service delivery. This, in addition to a good product, can keep a business successful, even if wages are forced to go up.